Please review the following URL and make sure that it is spelled correctly. This article focuses upon hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Chloroquine was originally used as an anti-malarial therapeutic. Can plaquenil cause swelling Plaquenil for lichen planopilaris Chloroquine retinopathy guidelines IMPORTANCE Hydroxychloroquine sulfate is widely used for the long-term treatment of autoimmune conditions but can cause irreversible toxic retinopathy. Prior estimations of risk were low but were based largely on short-term users or severe retinal toxicity bull's eye maculopathy. Chloroquine and its derivative, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, which have been useful in treating malaria and in larger doses, collagen-vascular disease, cause a cumulative dose-related pigmentary retinopathy. Mechanism. Inhibition of critical enzymes & interference with the metabolic functions of retinal pigment epithelium RPE & photoreceptors. The condition sometimes resembles a target, or bulls-eye ring, on the retina surrounding the macula. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy is extremely rare and is most often seen in cases where the dosage is high or the patient has been taking it for several years. Bulls-eye maculopathy is uncommon, but when it does occur, it can be devastating. In the United States, hydroxychloroquine is most often used for its anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatology and dermatology. Chloroquine is now uncommonly used in favor of its derivative hydroxychloroquine. How does hydroxychloroquine cause retinopathy Hydroxychloroquine screening, Drug induced maculopathy - EyeWiki Plaquenil and alcohol side effectsPlaquenil for ccca Find information about common, infrequent and rare side effects of Plaquenil Oral. Common and Rare Side Effects for Plaquenil Oral. Plaquenil Side Effects on Your Eyes and Vision. Avoiding the Traps of Hydroxychloroquine Use. Plaquenil is not recommended for malaria prophylaxis in geographic areas where chloroquine resistance occurs. • Plaquenil does not prevent relapses of P. vivax or P. ovale because it is not active against the hypnozoite forms of these parasites. Hydroxychloroquine is the most commonly used AM, specifically because it has a lower risk for retinal toxicity than chloroquine. This may be because CQ crosses the blood-retinal barrier and HCQ does not. There is no retinal damage associated with the use of quinacrine. Many systemic medications may cause retinal toxicity. One such commonly used medication for dermatologic and rheumatologic inflammatory conditions is hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil, a chloroquine derivative. It is used to treat many diseases including malaria, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.